David Papo

Born 5 April 1969, in Ancona (Italy)

Nationality: Italian, French, Israeli


Researcher, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Ferrara (Italy).


2008                 Summer School – Complex Systems, Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM (USA).
2004                 PhD – Psychology, Université de Provence, Marseille (France).
1998                  MSc – Experimental Methods in Psychology, University College London, London (UK).
1997                  Laurea – Economics (MSc equivalent), Università Bocconi, Milano (Italy).


2016-2019         Senior Research Fellow, SCALab, Université de Lille, Lille (France).

2011-2014       Senior Research Fellow, Center for Biomedical Technology; Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

2009-2010         Visiting Research Fellow, Centre d’Économie de la Sorbonne; Université Paris 1, Paris (France).

2007-2009         Post-doctoral Fellow, Department of Education in Science, Technion, Haifa (Israel).

2005-2007         Post-doctoral Fellow, Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel).


Journal articles

  1. Samoylenko, I., Aleja, D., Primo, E., Alfaro-Bittner, K., Vasilyeva, E., Kovalenko, K., Musatov, D., Raigorodskii, A.M., Criado, R., Romance, M., Papo, D., Perc, M., Barzel, B., and Boccaletti, S. (2023). Why are there six degrees of separation in a social network? Physical Review X, , 13:021032. [.pdf]
  2. Bernardi, D., Shannahoff-Khalsa, D., Sale, J., Wright, J.A., Fadiga, L., & Papo D. (2023). The time scales of irreversibility in spontaneous brain activity are altered in obsessive compulsive disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14:1158404. [.pdf]
  3. Zanin, M., Güntekin, B., Yener, G., Sequeira, H., & Papo D. (2022). Telling functional networks apart using ranked network features stability. Scientific Reports, 12:2562 [.pdf].
  4. Papo, D. (2022). Attaining the recesses of the cognitive space. Cognitive Neurodynamics, 16:767–778. [.pdf]
  5. Zanin, M., & Papo, D. (2021). Algorithmic approaches for assessing irreversibility in time series: review and comparison Entropy 23:1474. [.pdf]
  6. Korhonen, O., Zanin, M., & Papo, D. (2021). Principles and open questions in functional brain network reconstruction. Human Brain Mapping, 42:3680–3711. [.pdf]
  7. Zanin, M., Ivanoska, I., Güntekin, B., Yener, G., Loncar-Turukalo, T., Jakovljevic, N., Sveljo, O., & Papo D. (2021). A fast transform for brain connectivity difference evaluation. Neuroinformatics, 20:285–299. [.pdf].
  8. Zanin, M., & Papo, D. (2020). Travel restrictions during pandemics: a useful strategy? Chaos, 30:111103. [.pdf]
  9. Sendiña-Nadal, I., Leyva, I., Perc, M., Papo, D., Jusup, M., Wang, Z., Almendral, J.A., Manshour, P., & Boccaletti S. (2020). Diverse strategic identities induce dynamical states in evolutionary games. Physical Review Research, 2:043168. arXiv:2006.09798. [.pdf] [arXiv]
  10. Papo, D., Righetti, M., Fadiga, L., Biscarini, F., & Zanin, M., (2020). A minimal model of hospital patients’ dynamics in COVID-19. Chaos Solitons & Fractals, 140:110157. [.pdf]
  11. Zanin, M., & Papo, D. (2020). Assessing functional propagation patterns in COVID-19. Chaos Solitons & Fractals, 138:109993. [.pdf]
  12. Zanin, M., Güntekin, B., Aktürk, T., Hanoğlu, L., & Papo, D. (2020). Time irreversibility of resting-state activity in the healthy brain and pathology. Frontiers in Fractal Physiology, 10:1619. [.pdf], [.ArXiv]
  13. Tozzi, A., & Papo, D. (2020). Projective mechanisms subtending real world phenomena wipe away cause effect relationships. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology151:1-13. [.pdf]
  14. Papo, D., & Buldú, J.M. (2019). Brain synchronizability: a false friend. Neuroimage, 196:195-199. [.pdf], [.ArXiv]
  15. Papo, D. (2019). Gauging functional brain activity: from distinguishability to accessibility. Frontiers in Fractal Physiology, 10:509arXiv:1902.08511 [.pdf]
  16. Papo, D. (2019). Neurofeedback: principles, appraisal and outstanding issues. European Journal of Neuroscience 49:1454–1469. doi: 10.1111/ejn.14312; arXiv:1805.05303 [.pdf] [ArXiv]
  17. Larochette, C., Wawrziczny, E., Papo, D., Antoine, P., & Pasquier, F. (2019). An acceptance, role transition, and couple dynamics-based program for caregivers: A qualitative study of the experience of spouses of persons with young-onset dementia. Dementia, 1471301219854643.
  18. Zanin, M., Rodríguez-González, A., Menasalvas Ruiz, E., & Papo, D. (2018). Assessing time series reversibility through permutation patterns. Entropy, 20:665. [.pdf]
  19. Buldú, J.M., & Papo, D. (2018). Can multilayer brain networks be a real step forward? Comment on “Network science of biological systems at different scales: a review”. Physics of Life Reviews, 24:153-155.
  20. Martínez,  J.M., Buldú, J.M., Papo, D., De Vico Fallani, F., & Chavez, M. (2018). Role of inter-hemispheric connections in functional brain networks. Scientific Reports8:10246. [.pdf]
  21. Wawrziczny, E., Larochette, C., Papo, D., Constant, E., Ducharme, F., Kergoat, M.J., Pasquier, F., & Antoine, P. (2018). A customized intervention for dementia caregivers: a quasi-experimental design. Journal of Aging and Health, 0898264318770056.
  22. Papo, D. (2017). Beyond the anatomy-based representation of brain function. Comment on “Topodynamics of metastable brains” by Arturo Tozzi et al. Physics of Life Reviews, 21:42-45. [abstract]
  23. Papo, D., Goñi, J., & Buldú, J.M. (2017). On the relation between dynamics and structure. Chaos27:047201. [.pdf]
  24. Zanin, M., & Papo, D. (2017). Detecting switching and intermittent causalities in time series. Chaos27:047403. doi:10.1063/1.4979046 [.pdf]
  25.  Zanin, M., & Papo, D. (2016). The ACE brain. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 10:122. doi: 10.3389/fncom.2016.00122. [.pdf]
  26. Papo, D. (2016). Commentary: The entropic brain: a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10:423. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2016.00423 [.pdf]
  27. Zanin, M., Papo, D., Sousa, P.A., Menasalvas, E., Nicchi, A., Kubik, E., & Boccaletti, S. (2016). Combining complex networks and data mining: why and how. Physics Reports, 635:1-44. doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2016.04.005. [.pdf] [arXiv]
  28. Zanin, M., Papo, D., Romance, M., Criado, R., & Moral, S. (2016). The topology of card transaction money flows. Physica A, 462: 134-140.
  29. Papo, D., Zanin, M., Martínez, J.H., & Buldú, J.M. (2016). Beware of the Small-World, neuroscientist! Frontiers in Human Neuroscience10:96doi:10.3389/fnhum.2016.00096.  [.pdf] [arXiv]
  30. Sevilla-Escoboza, R., Buldú, J.M., Boccaletti, S., Papo, D., Hwang, D.-U., Huerta-Cuellar, G., & Gutiérrez, R. (2016). Experimental implementation of maximally synchronizable networks. Physica A, 448:113-121. arXiv:1507.02551. [Abstract] [arXiv]
  31. Zanin, M., & Papo, D. (2015). Studying attacks to information systems using functional networks. Frontiers in ICT2:18. doi: 10.3389/fict.2015.00018. [.pdf]
  32. Papo, D. (2015). How can we study reasoning in the brain? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience9:222. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00222. [.pdf] [arXiv]
  33. Martínez, J.H., Pastor, J.M., Ariza, P., Zanin, M., Papo D., Maestú F., Bajo, R., Boccaletti, S. & Buldú, J.M. (2015). Anomalous consistency in mild cognitive impairment: A complex networks approach. Chaos Solitons & Fractals, 70:144-155. arXiv:1311.4700. [abstract]
  34. Navas, A., Papo, D., Boccaletti, S., del Pozo, F., Bajo, R., Maestú F., Gil, P., Sendiña-Nadal, I., & Buldú, J.M. (2015). Functional hubs in mild cognitive impairment. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 25:1550034. arXiv:1307.0969. [Abstract] [.pdf]
  35. Zanin, M., & Papo, D. (2014). Characterizing motif dynamics of electric brain activity using symbolic analysis. Entropy, 16:5654-5667. doi:10.3390/e16115654. [Abstract] [.pdf]
  36. Papo, D., Buldú, J.M., Boccaletti, S., & Bullmore, E.T. (2014). Complex network theory and the brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 369:20130520. [.pdf]
  37. Papo, D., Zanin, M., Pineda-Pardo, J.A., Boccaletti, S., & Buldú, J.M. (2014). Functional brain networks: Great expectations, hard times, and the big leap forward. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B369:20130525. [.pdf]
  38. Papo, D. (2014). Functional significance of complex fluctuations in brain activity: from rest to cognitive neuroscience. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience8:112. doi:10.3389/fnsys.2014.00112. [.pdf]
  39. Aguirre, J., Sevilla-Escoboza, R., Gutiérrez, R., Papo, D., & Buldú, J.M. (2014). Synchronization in interconnected networks. Physical Review Letters, 112:248701. arXiv:1406.0081v2 [Abstract] [arXiv]
  40. Zanin, M., Medina Alcazar, J., Carbajosa, J.V., Papo, D., Sousa, P., Menasalvas, E., & Boccaletti, S. (2014). Parenclitic networks reveal key genes regulating the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to osmotic stress. Scientific Reports, 4:5112. arXiv:1304.1896v2.
  41. Papo, D. (2014). Measuring brain temperature without a thermometer. Frontiers in Fractal Physiology, 5:24. doi:10.3389/fphys.2014.00124. [.pdf]
  42. Papo, D., Zanin, M., & Buldú, J.M. (2014). Reconstructing brain networks: have we got the basics right? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8:107. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00107. [.pdf]
  43. de Santos-Sierra, D., Sendiña-Nadal, I., Leyva, I., Almendral, J.A., Anava, S., Ayali, A., Papo, D., & Boccaletti, S. (2014). Emergence of small-world anatomical networks in self-organizing clustered neuronal cultures. PLoS One9:e85828. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085828. arXiv:1311.0164.
  44. Coullaut-Valera, R., Arbaiza I., Bajo, R., Arrúe, R., López, M.E., Coullaut-Valera, J., Correas, D., López-Sanz, D., Maestú F., & Papo, D. (2014). Drug polyconsumption is associated with hypersynchronized brain activity at rest and in a counting task. International Journal of Neural Systems, 24:1450005. doi:10.1142/S0129065714500051.
  45. Zanin, M., & Papo, D. (2013). Efficient neural codes can lead to spurious synchronization. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience. 7:125. doi: 10.3389/fncom.2013.00125.
  46. Zanin, M., Papo, D., & Boccaletti, S. (2013). Computing with complex-valued networks of phase oscillators. EPL, 102:40007.
  47. Papo, D. (2013). Time scales in cognitive neuroscience. Frontiers in Fractal Physiology, 4:86. doi:10.3389/fphys.2013.00086. [.pdf]
  48. Papo, D. (2013). Why should cognitive neuroscientists study the brain’s resting state? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7:45. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00045. [.pdf]
  49. Aguirre, J., Papo, D., & Buldú, J.M. (2013). Successful strategies for competing networks. Nature Physics, 9:230-234. doi:10.1038/nphys2556.
  50. Cardillo, A., Gomez-Gardeñes, J., Zanin, M., Romance, M., Papo, D., del Pozo, F., & Boccaletti, S. (2013). Emergence of network features from multiplexity. Scientific Reports, 3:1344. doi:10.1038/srep01344.
  51. Leyva, I., Sendiña-Nadal, I., Almendral, J.A., Navas, A., Zanin, M., Papo, D., Buldú, J.M., & Boccaletti, S. (2013). Explosive transitions to synchronization in networks of phase oscillators. Scientific Reports, 3:1281. doi:10.1038/srep01281.
  52. Zanin, M., Papo, D., González Solís, J.L., Martínez Espinosa, J.C., Frausto-Reyes, C., Palomares Anda, P., Sevilla-Escoboza, R., Jaimes-Reategui, R., Boccaletti, S., Menasalvas, E., & Sousa, P. (2013). Knowledge discovery in spectral data by means of complex networks. Metabolites3:155-167.
  53. Zanin, M., Sousa, P., Papo, D., Bajo, R., García-Prieto, J., del Pozo, F., Menasalvas, E., & Boccaletti, S. (2012). Optimizing functional network representation of multivariate time series. Scientific Reports, 2:630.
  54. Zanin, M., Zunino, L., Rosso, O.A., & Papo, D. (2012). Permutation entropy and its main biomedical and econophysics applications: A review. Entropy, 14:1553-1577.
  55. Avalos-Gaytán, V., Almendral, J.A., Papo, D., Schaeffer, S.E., & Boccaletti, S. (2012). Assortative and modular networks are shaped by adaptive synchronization processes. Physical Review E, 86:015101(R).
  56. Zanin, M., Gutiérrez, R., Bajo, R., Buldú, J.M., Papo, D., & Boccaletti, S. (2012). Editorial: Dynamics and processes on complex networks. International Journal of Bifurcations and Chaos22:1202006.
  57. Rad, A.A., Sendiña-Nadal, I., Papo, D., Zanin, M., Buldú, J.M., & Boccaletti, S. (2012). Topological measure locating the effective crossover between segregation and integration in a modular network. Physical Review Letters, 108:228101.
  58. Gutiérrez, R., Sendiña-Nadal, I., Zanin, M., Papo, D., & Boccaletti, S. (2012). Targeting the dynamics of complex networks. Scientific Reports, 2:396.
  59. Zanin, M., Papo, D., Sendiña-Nadal, I., & Boccaletti, S. (2011). Computation as an emergent feature of adaptive synchronization. Physical Review E, 84:060102(R).
  60. Siman-Tov, T., Papo, D., Gadoth, N.,Schonberg, T., Mendelsohn, A., Perry, D., & Hendler, T. (2009). Mind your left: Leftward bias in subcortical fear processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience21:1782-1789.
  61. Lerner, Y., Papo, D., Zhdanov, A., Belozersky, L., & Hendler, T. (2009). Eyes wide shut: Amygdala mediates eyes-closed effect on emotional experience with music. PLoS One, 4(7):e6230. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006230.
  62. Papo, D. (2008). Where do ideas come from? Brain activity and economic systems. European Journal of Economic and Social Systems, 20:163-186.
  63. Buiatti*, M., Papo*, D., Baudonnière, P.-M., & van Vreeswijk, C. (2007). Feedback modulates the temporal scale-free dynamics of brain electrical activity in a hypothesis testing task. Neuroscience, 146:1400-1412. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.02.048. *Contributed equally to the MS.
  64. Papo, D., Caverni, J.-P., Douiri, A., Podlipsky, I., & Baudonnière, P.-M. (2007). Time-varying spectral entropy differentiates between positive and negative feedback-related EEG activity in a hypothesis testing paradigm. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 66:183-195. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2007.06.004.
  65. Papo, D., Douiri, A., Bouchet, F., Bourzeix, J.-C., Caverni, J.-P., & Baudonnière, P.-M. (2007). Feedback modulates gamma oscillations in a hypothesis testing paradigm. Brain Research, 1141:147-153. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2007.01.053.
  66. Papo, D., Douiri, A., Caverni, J.-P., Bouchet, F., Bourzeix, J.-C., & Baudonnière, P.-M. (2007). Modulation of late alpha band oscillations by feedback in a hypothesis testing paradigm. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 61:110-116. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2006.09.002
  67. Papo, D., Douiri, A., Bouchet, F., Bourzeix, J.-C., Caverni, J.-P., & Baudonnière, P.-M. (2007).Time-frequency intracranial source localization of feedback-related EEG activity in hypothesis testing.Cerebral Cortex, 17:1314-1322. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhl042.
  68. Lebib, R., Papo, D., Douiri, A., de Bode, S., Gillon, M., & Baudonnière, P.-M. (2004). Modulations of ‘late’ event-related brain potentials in humans by dynamic audiovisual speech stimuli. Neuroscience Letters, 372:74-79.
  69. Papo, D., Baudonnière, P.-M., Hugueville, L., & Caverni, J.-P. (2003). Feedback in hypothesis testing: An ERP study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience15:508-522.
  70. Lebib, R., Papo, D., de Bode, S., & Baudonnière, P.-M. (2003). Evidence of a visual-to-auditory cross-modal sensory gating phenomenon as reflected by the P50 event-related brain potential modulation. Neuroscience Letters, 341:185-188.
  71. Yardley, L., Papo, D., Bronstein, A., Gresty, M., Gardner, M., Lavie, N., & Luxon, L. (2002). Attentional demands of continuously monitoring orientation using vestibular information. Neuropsychologia, 40:373-383.

Book Chapters

  • Buldú, J.M., Sevilla-Escoboza, R., Aguirre, J., Papo, D., & Gutiérrez, R. (2016),  Interconnecting networks: the role of connector links. In: Interconnected networks, Antonios Garas (Ed.), pp. 61-77, Springer. [Abstract]
  • Zanin, M., & Papo, D. (2015).  Identity assurance through EEG recordings. In: Handbook of Research on Human-Computer Interfaces, Developments, and Applications, João Rodrigues, Pedro Cardoso, Jânio Monteiro, and Mauro Figueiredo, Eds. (Accepted for publication).
  • Papo, D., Buldú, J.M., & Boccaletti, S. (2015). Network theory in neuroscience. Springer Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience (pp. 1852-1868). doi 10.1007/978-1-4614-7320-6_713-1. [Abstract]
  • Papo, D., Martínez, J.H., Ariza, P., Pineda-Pardo, J.A., Boccaletti, S., & Buldú, J.M. (2015). Las redes funcionales bajo la perspectiva de la teoría de grafos. Elsevier España.
  • Jacob, Y., Papo, D., Hendler, T., & Ben-Jacob, E. (2012). Functional Holography and Cliques in Brain Activation Patterns. In Chaudhary, Vikas (Ed.) Advances in Brain Imaging, In Tech-Online Publisher,(pp. 101-126).
  • Hendler, T., Admon, R., & Papo, D. (2007). In the Eyes of the Beholder: Neuronal mediators for the effect of emotional experience on quality of life. In Ritsner, Michael S., Awad, A. George (Eds.) Quality of Life Impairment in Schizophrenia, Mood and Anxiety Disorders – New Perspectives on Research and Treatment; Frankfurt: Springer, (pp. 57-66).

ArXiv Preprints

  • Papo, D. (2019). Gauging functional brain activity: from distinguishability to accessibility. arXiv:1902.08511 [.pdf]
  • Papo, D. & Buldú, J.M. (2018). Brain synchronizability: a false friend. arXiv:1806.01597 [.pdf]
  • Papo, D. (2015). Characterizing the neural correlates of reasoning. arXiv:1501.05174.
  • Papo, D. (2013). Brain temperature: what it means and what it can do for (cognitive) neuroscientists. arXiv:1310.2906. [.pdf]

Special Issues Editor

  • Focus Issue Editor “On the Relation of Dynamics and Structure in Brain Networks” (with J. Goñi and J.M. Buldú), Chaos (April, 2017).
  • Research Topic Editor: “Computation beyond the Boolean world” (with M. Zanin and J.M. Buldú), Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience (Expected date of publication: December, 2018).
  • Theme Issue Editor: “Complex Network Theory and the Brain”, D. Papo, J.M. Buldú, S. Boccaletti, and E.T. Bullmore (Eds.), Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 369(1653), 5 October, 2014.
  • Theme Section Editor: “Dynamics and Processes of Complex Networks”, International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 22(7), 2012.


Associate editor: Chaos Solitons & Fractals

Review editor: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience; Frontiers in Fractal Physiology; Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

 Ad hoc reviewer 

Brain Research, Brain Topography, Chaos, Complexity, Consciousness and Cognition, Current Psychology Letters, Developmental Neuropsychology, Entropy, Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Frontiers in Physiology, Frontiers in Psychiatry, Frontiers in Systems Biology, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Journal of Neuroscience, Journal of Neuroscience Research, Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, Nature Communications, Network Neuroscience, NeuroImage, Neuropsychologia, Neuroscience Letters, PeerJ, PloS Computational Biology, PLoS One, Physical Review E, Scientific Reports


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